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指导学生读好书、读经典,全面提高学生素质——教育部基础教育课程教材发展中心负责人就《中小学生阅读指导目录(2020年版)》答记者问
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riqian,《jiaoyubujichujiaoyukechengjiaocaifazhanzhongxin zhongxiaoxueshengyueduzhidaomulu(2020nianban)》fabu。jiaoyubujichujiaoyukechengjiaocaifazhanzhongxinfuzerenjiuyouguanwentihuidalejizhedetiwen。

一、社会各界对学生阅读指导十分关注,请介绍一下《指导目录》出台的背景。 

da:yindaoxueshengduhaoshu、dujingdian,duiyuquanmiantigaoxueshengsuzhi,dahaozhongguodise,houzhihongsejiyin,peiyangdandangminzufuxingdarendeshidaixinrenjuyouzhongyaoyiyi。《zhidaomulu》dechutaizhuyaoyouyixiasangefangmiandebeijing: 

yishiluoshidangzhongyangguowuyuanguanyushenhuajiaoyugaigehequanminyuedudejuecebushu。dangzhongyangguowuyuanduishenhuajiaoyugaigezuochuleyixiliezhongdajuecebushu,zaidangdeshijiudahequanguojiaoyudahuishang,xijinpingzongshujiqiangdiaoluoshilideshurengenbenrenwu,peiyangdezhitimeilaoquanmianfazhandeshehuizhuyikuailesaichezhehejiebanren。jinnianlai,guowuyuan《zhengfugongzuobaogao》duocitichuchangdaohetuidongquanminyuedu,quanminyueduyijingbujinguanhugerenxiuyangyusuzhi,erqieguanhuguojiawenhuaruanshiliyuhexinjingzhengli。guangdazhongxiaoxueshengshiquanminyuedudezhongyaoqunti,zhidaoxueshengjiaqiangyuedu、zhengqueyuedu,shiquanmianguanchedangdejiaoyufangzhen、luoshiquanminyuedujuecebushu,peiyangxueshengjiandinglixiangxinnian、houzhiaiguozhuyiqinghuai、jiaqiangpindexiuyang、zengzhangzhishijianshi、peiyangfendoujingshen、zengqiangzonghesuzhidezhongyaojucuo。

ershiyueduduiyucujinzhongxiaoxueshengchengzhangjuyouzhongyaoyiyi。qingshaonianertongshiguojiadexiwangheweilai,qingshaonianertongdesuzhiguanxiweilaizhonghuaminzuzhengtisuzhi,guanxiguojiaqiantuheminzumingyun。qingshaonianzhengchuyushijieguan、renshengguan、jiazhiguanxingchengdeguanjianshiqi,dushuduiyutigaoqingshaonianertongdesixiangzhengzhisuzhihekexuewenhuasuyangjuyouzhongyaoyiyi。congjinnianlaikuailesaicheguocanjiadeguojixueshengxueyenengliceshilaikan,kuailesaicheguoxueshengjichuzhishihejibennengliceshichengjijuyuqianlie,danyuedushuliangxiangduibuzu,yuedunengliyoudaitigao。xuyaojinyibupeiyangxueshengdeyueduxingquheyueduxiguan,cujinxueshengzaixitongyuedu、shencengciyueduzhongfaxianwenti、sikaowenti,zengzhangjianshi、tishengsuyang。

快乐赛车sanshibangzhuxuexiao、jiazhanghexueshengjiejuexuanzeshumushangdenanchu。dangqian,shichangshangdetushuzhongleifanduo、shuliangjuda,zhongxiaoxuexiao、jiazhang、xueshengwusuoshicong。kuailesaichezuzhizhuanjiayijuzhongxiaoxueshengshenxinfazhantedianhejiaoyuguilv,conggujinzhongwaidezuopinzhongtuijianshaoerjingdeyouxiuzuopin,yindaoxueshengduhaoshu、dujingdian,weizhongxiaoxueshengfennianling、fenxueduanyuedutigongkexuezhidao。tongshiyejiejuexuexiao、jiazhanghexueshengxuanzekunnandewenti,rangxueshengzaiyouxiandeshijianneitigaoyueduxiaolvheyueduzhiliang。

二、《指导目录》的研制标准是什么?

da:《zhidaomulu》deyanzhizhuyaojianchile6geyuanze:

快乐赛车yishifangxiangxing。jianchizhengquedezhengzhidaoxianghejiazhiquxiang,jianchilideshuren,zunxunjiaoyuguilv,yiwenhuaren,weiquanmianfazhansuzhijiaoyu、peiyangdezhitimeilaoquanmianfazhandeshehuizhuyikuailesaichezhehejiebanrenkuailesaiche。

ershidaibiaoxing。xuanzelishishaixuanjidianxiadejuyoujiaogaosixiangjiazhi、wenhuajiazhihuokexuejiazhidedaibiaoxingjingdianduwu,jianguduogexueke、butongshidai、duozhongwenhuaheshijieduogediqu,tebieshizhuzhongjichenghehongyangzhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhua、gemingwenhuaheshehuizhuyixianjinwenhua。

sanshishiyixing。zunzhongxueshengshenxinfazhanguilv,genjuqingshaonianertongbutongshiqidexinzhifazhanshuiping、renzhilijienengliheyuedutedian,kexuedixuanzeshihebutongxueduan、nianlingduandeqingshaonianertongduwu,tiejinxueshengdesixiang、xuexi、shenghuoshiji,tuchuquweixing,zhuzhongduixueshengyouqishidinianlingduanxueshengyueduxingquheyueduxiguandepeiyang。

快乐赛车sishijichuxing。duiduwujingtiaoxixuan,zuodaoliangshaozhijing,zuoweiquanguozhongxiaoxueshengkeneiwaiyuedudejichutuijianshumu,nuliweiquantiqingshaonianertongkexuewenhuasuyangdexingchengheguominjibensuzhidetishengdiandingjichu。

wushiquanmianxing。fugaiduolingyuduoxueke,anzhaoxuekefenbietuijian,helifenpeigeleibiedebili,pinghengjianguduwudexueke、guobie、ticai、ticai、fengge、niandaidengyinsu,guantonggujinzhongwai;tixianxueduandexianjiehetidu,datongkeneiwaidejiexian,zonghekaolvkechengbiaozhun、jiaocaihejiaoxueshiji。

liushikaifangxing。yushijujin,genjujingjishehuifazhanxuyaoduiyueduzhidaomulushishijinxingdongtaidiaozheng,cici《zhidaomulu》biaozhu(2020nianban),jiangbuduanwanshangengxin。

三、请介绍一下《指导目录》的研制过程。

da:《zhidaomulu》yanzhigongzuoyu2019nian3yuefenqidong,shoujiaoyubuweituo,jiaoyubujichujiaoyukechengjiaocaifazhanzhongxinzuzhilaiziguojiajiaocaiwei、youguangaoxiao、yanjiujigouhezhongxiaoxuexiaode110duorendezhuanjiatuandui,jingguojichuyanjiu、zhuanyetuijian、shenrulunzheng、jingxinlinxuan,xingcheng《zhidaomulu》。

diyijieduanshijichuyanjiu。yishishuliheyanjiuleguoneiwaiyouguanxueshengyuedudebiaozhun;ershishulihefenxileyouguanxueshengyuedudeyanjiuwenxian;sanshihuibianhetongjileguoneiyiyoudaibiaoxingshumujifenjiyuedushumu;sishishoujihezhenglileshijieshangbufenguojiahediqugongbudeyuedushumu。

快乐赛车dierjieduanshizhuanyetuijian。zujianleyouguojiajiaocaiweiweiyuan、zhongguokexueyuanyuanshihezhongxuanbudengyouguanbumendefuzetongzhi、yuedutuiguangrenhezhongxiaoxuexiaozhangdaibiaodenggegelingyudegong16weizhuanjiagouchengdezhuanjiaweiyuanhui,zhuanjiaweiyuanhuitaolunqueding《zhidaomulu》suolietushufenlei、linxuanbiaozhunhelinxuancankaofanwei。ranhouchenglirenwensheke、wenxue、zirankexueheyishu4gefangmiangong48renzuchengdezhuanjiagongzuozu,congquedingdelinxuancankaofanweizhong,tuijianchushihezhongxiaoxueshengyuedudetushu。

disanjieduanshishenrulunzheng。zaizhuanjiaweiyuanhuidezhidaoxia,xianhouzuzhizhuanjiagongzuozujinxingshitishutongdu,zonghezujinxingxueduanshiyixingshendu,laiziguojiajiaocaiweisizhengshenyidengzhuanweihuide14weizhuanjiajinxingsixiangzhengzhishencha,yanbatuijiantushudezhengzhiguan、sixiangguanhekexueguan。tongshi,mianxiangjiaoyujie、kexuejie、xinwenjie、chubanjiedenglingyuzhimingrenshi,gaodengyuanxiao、yanjiujigouquanweizhuanjiahexiangguanbuweifuzetongzhidenggegefangmiangong36weidaibiaoguangfanzhengqiuyijian,xiugaiwanshan《zhidaomulu》。zuihouzhuanjiaweiyuanhuitaoluntongguo《zhidaomulu》。

快乐赛车《zhidaomulu》yanzhilishiyinian,xianhoujizhongzhaokaihuiyi12ci,zhuanjiatuanduineibuhuiyi20yuci,conggujinzhongwaihaoruyanhaidetushuzhonglinxuantuijian,nulituchufangxiangxing、daibiaoxing、shiyixing、jichuxing、quanmianxinghekaifangxing,liqiujianguduogexueke、butongshidai、duozhongwenhuaheshijieduogediqu。

四、《指导目录》的基本结构是什么?

da:genjuqingshaonianertongbutongshiqidexinzhifazhanshuiping、renzhilijienengliheyuedushijian,《zhidaomulu》fenweixiaoxue、chuzhong、gaozhongsangexueduan,tuijiantushugong300zhong。kaolvdaozhongxiaoxueshengdeyuedunengliheyuedushijiandexianzhi,tuijiantushushuliangbuyiguoduo,yimianchanshengxueshengguozhongdeyuedufudanhexueshengjiatingdejingjifudan。tongchoukaolvzhongxiaoxueshengkewaiyuedushijian、yuedutedianhetushurongliang,xiaoxue、chuzhong、gaozhong3gexueduanfenbietuijian110zhong、100zhonghe90zhong。kaolvdaoxiaoxuejieduanbutongnianjixueshengshenxinfazhanqubiejiaoda,xiaoxuejieduanzaifenweidi、zhong、gaosanduan,fenbieyuezhanxiaoxuetuijianshumude20%、30%he50%。

weiluoshidezhitimeilaoquanmianpeiyangdejiaoyumubiao,jiehezhongxiaoxuexueketedianhekeshianpai,《zhidaomulu》huafenweirenwensheke、wenxue、zirankexueheyishusilei。meigexueduanzhong,renwenshekeleitushuyuezhan20%,wenxueleitushuyuezhan50%,zirankexueleitushuyuezhan20%,yishuleitushuyuezhan10%。qizhong,renwenshekebufentuchulishileiduwudezhanbi,bangzhuxueshengjianlizhengquedelishiguan。

快乐赛车《zhidaomulu》tuijianzhongguozuopinbiliwei76.7%,waiguozuopinbiliwei23.3%,peiyangzhongxiaoxueshengzhuzhongzijueyanxuzhonghuayouxiuwenhuajiyin,zengqiangminzuzizunxin、zixinxinhezihaogan,youzhuzhongcongbutongwenmingzhongxunqiuzhihui、jiquyingyang。

五、《指导目录》有哪些主要特点?

快乐赛车da:《zhidaomulu》yixijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangweizhidao,youjirongrushehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguan,tixianmakesizhuyizhongguohuazuixinchengguo,luoshizhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuajiaoyu,qianghuagemingchuantongjiaoyu,yindaoxueshengaidangaiguoaishehuizhuyi,tongshizhuzhongxishourenleiwenmingdeyouxiuchengguo,liyuxueshengkaikuoguojishiye,zengqiangrenleimingyungongtongtideyishi。

renwenshekeleizhuzhongxuanzefanyinglingxiurenwu、zhongyaolishirenwuheyingxiongmofanrenwudezuopin,jiangdangshi、guoshihegaigekaifangshiguanchuansangexueduan,bangzhuxueshengzengqiang“sigezixin”,peiyangzhongxiaoxueshengaiguozhuyiqinghuai。wenxueleijizhuzhongtuixuanzhongguochuantongwenxuemingzhuhehongsejingdianzuopin,bangzhuzhongxiaoxueshenghongyangzhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhua、jichenggemingwenhua;youlinxuanleshijiewenxuemingzhuhewaiguodangdaiyouxiuzuopin,bangzhuzhongxiaoxueshengzengqiangduiyouxiuduoyuanwenhuadelijie。zirankexueleixuanzelechongfenfanyinggujinzhongwaikexuechengjiudejingdianzhuzuo,bingzhuzhongtuijiandangdaizhongguozuojiadeyuanchuangkepuzuopin,peiyangxueshengdekexuetansuojingshen。yishuleizhezhongtuijianfeiwuzhiwenhuayichanxiangguanduwu,bangzhuxueshenglejiehejianshangchuantongxiqu、shufahegudaijianzhu,peiyuhetigaoxueshengshenmeinengli。

六、《指导目录》与现行国家语文课程标准和统编语文教材推荐阅读的图书是什么关系?

da:guojiayuwenkechengbiaozhunhetongbianyuwenjiaocaishejideyuedutushu,jibenshangdounaru《zhidaomulu》。《zhidaomulu》shiduixianxingguojiayuwenkechengbiaozhunhetongbianyuwenjiaocaidetuozhanyuyanshen,《zhidaomulu》bujinbaokuowenxuezuopin,haibaokuorenwensheke、zirankexueheyishuleitushu,《zhidaomulu》suoliezuopinhezuojiafugaimianyeyoutuozhan,keyizengqiangxueshengdexuanzexing。

七、学生、家长和学校应该怎样使用《指导目录》?

da:shouxian,tuijiantushugongxueshengzizhuxuanze,buzuoqiangzhiyaoqiu。《zhidaomulu》duiyuzhongxiaoxueshengfengfujingshenwenhuashenghuo、tigaosixiangzhengzhisuzhihekexuewenhuasuyangjuyouzhongyaoyiyi。《zhidaomulu》suolietushugongxueshengzizhuxuanzeyuedu,gedigexiaobuzuotongyiyaoqiu,budeqiangzhishiyong。

qici,tuijiantushubuyaoqiuxueshengquanbubidu,tichangjingdu。xueshengkegenjugerenxingquxuanze《zhidaomulu》zhongdebufentushu,buzuoquanduyaoqiu。tichangxueshengzaifanfuyuedu、sibianzhuomodejingduguochengzhongzengzhangjianshi,peiyangnengli。

ciwai,tuijiantushubuzhidingbanben,xuesheng、jiazhanghexuexiaokejinxingzizhuxuanze。weishizhongxiaoxueshengyougengduodeyueduxuanze,《zhidaomulu》zhituijianzuopinmingcheng、zuozhedeng,buzhidingjutibanben(chubanshe),xuesheng、jiazhanghexuexiaokeyigenjushijiqingkuangxuanzeshihedebanben。

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